What driving force could be so powerful that it could transform a serene group of individuals into a potentially violent mob? What could sway the minds of half a stadium, based on the influence of only a handful of people?

It’s the same thing that motivates a person to share an impassioned social media post in knee-jerk response to societal standards. It’s a yield to “perceived group pressures” by publicly expressing whatever sentiment is in agreement with the norm. It’s so easy to do that most of us aren’t even aware when we are doing it!

Humans have a predilection to imitate one another’s behavior. We end up professing beliefs and acting out in ways which we would have never otherwise done or considered independently.  Psychologists refer to this occurrence as mob mentality. That’s why, for instance, it feels natural – and even pleasurable – to pass along gossip and counterintuitive to stop it.

Still, it could get channeled in positive ways, too.

Mob mentality, also called as herd mentality, describes how humans adopt behaviors, buy merchandise, and follow trends based on their circle of influence.  It explains how one’s point of view can be easily altered by those around them.

Mob mentality psychology can impact pop culture, political ideals, and even stock market behavior.  The origin of superstition lies in mob mentality psychology, as well.  Social psychologists have been studying all relevant topics relating to mob mentality and surmised that there are three psychological theories to crowd behavior: Contagion Theory, Convergence Theory, and Emergent-Norm Theory.

1. Contagion Theory (Crowd Frenzy)

Crowds easily become uncontrolled, wild, and frenzied. In this state, they can exert a hypnotic impact that results in unreasonable and emotionally charged behavior among the members. For example, with mob mentality, superstitions can evolve from a misconception or rumor between a small group of people and escalate quickly.

2. Convergence Theory

In this theory, like-minded individuals come together by focusing on a limited number of choices as possibilities, then choosing the “correct” answer from said choices. Another example could be a peaceful protest. Violence doesn’t have to be an emergent feature, but is a result if the people wanted it to be and came together in a crowd to make it so.

3. Emergent-Norm Theory (and The Anonymity of The Internet)

In this mentality, a combination of like-minded individuals share anonymity and emotions which lead to overall group behavior. The anonymity of the internet allows people the freedom of yielding to mob mentality and those messages exchanged via social media, as they are able to let go of the social restraints that would otherwise hinder them in a face-to-face setting.

Other examples of “mob mentality:”

Sporting Events

Large sporting events are an excellent mob mentality psychology example. Because they have been grouped in a crowd or large arena, many sports fans would take on collective moods and actions of the assembly.  Conditions like extreme weather or alcohol can enhance mob mentality.  Have you ever seen fans charge a field on an especially hot day?  Or get especially riled up over a close call made by an official when a few too many drinks were consumed?

The Salem Witch Trials

Perhaps one of the most enduring examples of mob mentality is that of The Salem Witch Trials, wherein an entire population came to believe that completely innocent victims were witches possessed by the devil.  They arrived at this conclusion without any physical or rational evidence.  There was simply a snowball effect once one person claimed to see the devil, claimed a conspiracy of witches, and then accused another woman of being a witch.  Widespread panic ensued.  Women were lynched one right after the other without a fair or reasonable trial because, by that point, those making the determination were incapable of fair reasoning.  They had already been entirely swayed by mob mentality.


Donley, Megan.  “Examining The Mob Mentality.”  South Source, South University. 14 Jan. 2011.  20 Feb. 2017.  http://source.southuniversity.edu/examining-the-mob-mentality-31395.aspx

James, Wendy, Ph.D. “The Psychology of Mob Mentality and Violence.”  Life Consultants, Inc.  (2013).   20 Feb. 2017.  http://www.drwendyjames.com/the-psychology-of-mob-mentality-and-violence/

McLeod, S. A. “Obedience to Authority.” Simply Psychology, (2007). 20 Feb. 2017.  www.simplypsychology.org/obedience.html

McLeod, S. A. “What is Conformity?” Simply Psychology, (2016).  20 Feb. 2017. www.simplypsychology.org/conformity.html

“The Salem Witch Trials, 1692.” Eyewitness To History. 22 Feb. 2017 http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/salem.htm

If you are interested in meeting with a behavioral health care provider to support mental health and wellness, try online videoconferencing through Inpathy

“Get outside of your comfort zone!” is an instruction each and every one of us have heard from motivational speakers and parents alike throughout our entire lives. What they mean is, try something new! But what does it actually mean to break outside of one’s comfort zone, and what are the benefits of doing so?

We all have a comfort zone—a place that feels safe and familiar. For me, it was working in a non-profit setting in a city I’d called home for the entirety of my adult life, Washington D.C. Being surrounded by friends and loved ones and working in a professional field in which I felt secure was incredibly cozy, but I gradually began to feel stagnant. Everything was easy, and I just wasn’t growing. Fast forward a year and a half and I’m working my first for-profit job in Chicago, IL. What a change!

A comfort zone can be described as “a psychological state in which things feel familiar to a person and they are at ease and in control of their environment, experiencing low levels of anxiety and stress.” Therefore, it can be assumed that stepping out of one’s comfort zone will raise anxiety and generate stress to a certain extent. Why would we want to do that?!

Many psychologists and social scientists believe that leaving your zone of comfort can enhance levels of focus and concentration. Alasdair White, the man who coined the term “comfort zone,” hypothesized that to achieve high performance, one has to experience a certain amount of stress.

Psychiatrist Dr. Abigail Brenner, author of Transitions: How Women Embrace Change and Celebrate Life, outlines her top 5 reasons to begin stepping outside your comfort zone as follows:

  1. Your “real life” is the conglomeration of all of your life’s experiences, not just the ones you’re comfortable with. Experiencing your “real life” in its totality is important to becoming a better-rounded person.
  2. Pushing yourself to do uncomfortable things releases your “personal store of untapped knowledge and resources.” You don’t know what you actually know and how strong you actually are until you’re challenged.
  3. Risks are growth experiences, no matter the outcome. In Dr. Brenner’s estimation, FAIL can mean “first attempt in learning.”
  4. Settling for mediocrity is an incredibly high price to pay for the feeling of relative safety. Letting your comfort dictate your experience is no way to live.
  5. Stepping outside of your comfort zone helps you learn how to deal with change, thereby expanding your comfort zone!

Over a century ago, in 1907, noted psychologist Robert Yerkes told of a behavioral space in which, in order to maximize performance, humans must reach stress levels that are slightly higher than normal. He called this space “Optimal Anxiety” and it’s just outside of our zone of comfort.

However, as we all learned in ninth grade psychology, the feeling of safety is second only to physiological requirements in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. There’s a reason most humans want to stay in an area of relative comfort and safety—it keeps us alive. The same Robert Yerkes that presented the idea of “Optimal Anxiety” reported that, “anxiety improves performance until a certain optimum level of arousal has been reached. Beyond that point, performance deteriorates as higher levels of anxiety are attained.”

So how do we find the perfect balance between this passive state of seeking comfort and active state of seeking growth? How do we find this “Optimal Anxiety”? Alan Henry, editor-in-chief of Life Hacker, suggests the following:

  1. Do everyday things differently. Take a different route to work. Try a new restaurant without checking Yelp first. Go vegetarian for a week, or a month…Look for the perspective that comes from any change, even if it’s negative. Don’t be put off if things don’t work out the way you planned.
  2. Take your time making decisions. Sometimes slowing down is all it takes to make you uncomfortable—especially if speed and quick thinking are prized in your work or personal life.
  3. Trust yourself and make snap decisions. We’re contradicting ourselves, but there’s a good reason… Sometimes making a snap call is in order, just to get things moving.
  4. Do it in small steps. It takes a lot of courage to break out of your comfort zone. You get the same benefits whether you go in with both feet as you do if you start slow, so don’t be afraid to start slow.

His last suggestion rings particularly true to me. We are creatures of habit, and we love our comfort. In order not stress yourself out too much, therefore inching out of that “optimal anxiety” level, don’t be so hard on yourself! Growth is growth.

If you are interested in meeting with a behavioral health care provider to support mental health and wellness, try online videoconferencing through Inpathy


Beck, Melinda. “Anxiety Can Bring Out the Best.” The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 18 June 2012. Web. 22 Jan. 2017.

Brenner, Abbigail. “5 Benefits of Stepping Outside Your Comfort Zone.” Psychology Today. N.p., 27 Dec. 2015. Web. 22 Jan. 2017.

Henry, Alan. “The Science of Breaking Out of Your Comfort Zone (and Why You Should).” Lifehacker. Lifehacker.com, 03 July 2013. Web. 22 Jan. 2017.

White, Alasdair. From Comfort Zone to Performance Management. N.p.: White & MacLean, 2009. Print.

Yerkes, R & Dodson, J. – “The Dancing Mouse, A Study in Animal Behavior” 1907 “Journal of Comparative Neurology & Psychology”, Number 18, pp 459–482

If you are in crisis, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline, a free, 24-hour hotline at 1.800.273.8255. If your issue is an emergency, call 911 or go to your nearest emergency room.